Temporal range: Pliocene - recent
Side-striped and black-backed jackals
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Family: Canidae
Subfamily: Caninae
Tribe: Canini
Subtribe: Canina
Genus: Lupulella
Hilzheimer, 1906
Type species
Canis mesomelas
Schreber, 1775
Extant species
Lupulella range.png
Lupulella range
  Lupulella adusta
  Lupulella mesomelas

Lupulella is a genus[1][2][3] of canine found in Africa.[4] This genus consists of only two extant species, the black-backed jackal (Lupulella mesomelas) and the side-striped jackal (Lupulella adusta).[3][1][2]


The two species had previously been considered members of the genus Canis. In 2017, a taxonomic review recommended that these two species be recognised as genus Lupulella.[5] In response to this review, the American Society of Mammalogists recognised the new genus.[3]

In 2019, a workshop hosted by the IUCN/SSC Canid Specialist Group recommends that because DNA evidence shows the side-striped jackal (Canis adustus) and black-backed jackal (Canis mesomelas) to form a monophyletic lineage that sits outside of the Canis/Cuon/Lycaon clade, that they should be placed in a distinct genus, Lupulella (Hilzheimer, 1906) with the names Lupulella adusta and Lupulella mesomelas.[1]

Image Name Common name Distribution
Canis adustus Kidepo National Park.jpg Lupulella adusta (Sundevall, 1847) Side-striped jackal Side-striped Jackal area.png

central and southern Africa

Black-backed jackal (Canis mesomelas mesomelas) 2.jpg Lupulella mesomelas (Schreber, 1775) Black-backed jackal Black-backed Jackal area.png

eastern and southern Africa.


Cladogram based on genomic data:[6]

True dogs

CerdocyoninaDogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate XLIII).jpg

Wolf-like canids

Canis/Cuon/LycaonDogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate X).jpg


Side-striped jackalDogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate XIII).jpg

Black-backed jackalDogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate XII).jpg


  1. ^ a b c Alvares, Francisco; Bogdanowicz, Wieslaw; Campbell, Liz A.D.; Godinho, Rachel; Hatlauf, Jennifer; Jhala, Yadvendradev V.; Kitchener, Andrew C.; Koepfli, Klaus-Peter; Krofel, Miha; Moehlman, Patricia D.; Senn, Helen; Sillero-Zubiri, Claudio; Viranta, Suvi; Werhahn, Geraldine (2019). "Old World Canis spp. with taxonomic ambiguity: Workshop conclusions and recommendations. CIBIO. Vairão, Portugal, 28th - 30th May 2019" (PDF). IUCN/SSC Canid Specialist Group. Retrieved 6 March 2020.
  2. ^ a b Castelló, José R. (2018). "Ch2-Wolf-like Canids". Canids of the World: Wolves, Wild Dogs, Foxes, Jackals, Coyotes, and Their Relatives (Princeton Field Guides). Princeton University Press. pp. 160–165. ISBN 978-0691176857.
  3. ^ a b c "Mammal Diversity Database". American Society of Mammalogists. Retrieved 28 December 2020.
  4. ^ Hoffmann, M. (2014). "Canis adustus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2014: e.T3753A46254734. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2014-1.RLTS.T3753A46254734.en. Retrieved 12 November 2021.
  5. ^ Viranta, Suvi; Atickem, Anagaw; Werdelin, Lars; Stenseth, Nils Chr. (2017). "Rediscovering a forgotten canid species". BMC Zoology. 2. doi:10.1186/s40850-017-0015-0.
  6. ^ K. Lindblad-Toh, C. M. Wade, T. S. Mikkelsen, E. K. Karlsson, D. B. Jaffe, M. Kamal, M. Clamp, J. L. Chang, E. J. Kulbokas, M. C. Zody, E. Mauceli, X. Xie, M. Breen, R. K. Wayne, E. A. Ostrander, C. P. Ponting, F. Galibert, D. R. Smith, P. J. Dejong, E. Kirkness, P. Alvarez, T. Biagi, W. Brockman, J. Butler, C. W. Chin, A. Cook, J. Cuff, M. J. Daly, D. Decaprio e S. Gnerre, Genome sequence, comparative analysis and haplotype structure of the domestic dog, in Nature, vol. 438, nº 7069, 2005, pp. 803–819, Bibcode:2005Natur.438..803L, DOI:10.1038/nature04338, PMID 16341006.

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