Type of site
|Created by||Allen Institute for Artificial Intelligence|
Semantic Scholar is an artificial-intelligence backed search engine for academic publications developed at the Allen Institute for AI and publicly released in November 2015. It uses advances in natural language processing to provide summaries for scholarly papers. The Semantic Scholar team is actively researching the use of artificial-intelligence in natural language processing, machine learning, Human-Computer interaction, and information retrieval.
Semantic Scholar began as a database surrounding the topics of computer science, geoscience, and neuroscience. However, in 2017 the system began including biomedical literature in its corpus. As of November 2021, they now include publications from all fields of science.
Semantic Scholar provides one-sentence summary of scientific literature. One of its aims was to address the challenge of reading numerous titles and lengthy abstracts on mobile devices. It also seeks to ensure that the three million scientific papers published yearly reach readers since it is estimated that only half of this literature are ever read.
Artificial intelligence is used to capture the essence of a paper, generating it through an "abstractive" technique. The project uses a combination of machine learning, natural language processing, and machine vision to add a layer of semantic analysis to the traditional methods of citation analysis, and to extract relevant figures, tables, entities, and venues from papers.
In contrast with Google Scholar and PubMed, Semantic Scholar is designed to highlight the most important and influential elements of a paper. The AI technology is designed to identify hidden connections and links between research topics. Like the previously cited search engines, Semantic Scholar also exploits graph structures, which include the Microsoft Academic Knowledge Graph, Springer Nature's SciGraph, and the Semantic Scholar Corpus.
Each paper hosted by Semantic Scholar is assigned a unique identifier called the Semantic Scholar Corpus ID (abbreviated S2CID). The following entry is an example:
One study compared the search abilities of Semantic Scholar through a systematic approach, and found the search engine to be 98.88% accurate when attempting to uncover the data. The same study examined other Semantic Scholar functions, including tools to survey metadata as well as several citation tools.
Number of Users and Publications
As of January 2018, following a 2017 project that added biomedical papers and topic summaries, the Semantic Scholar corpus included more than 40 million papers from computer science and biomedicine. In March 2018, Doug Raymond, who developed machine learning initiatives for the Amazon Alexa platform, was hired to lead the Semantic Scholar project. As of August 2019, the number of included papers had grown to more than 173 million after the addition of the Microsoft Academic Graph records. In 2020, a partnership between Semantic Scholar and the University of Chicago Press Journals made all articles published under the University of Chicago Press available in the Semantic Scholar corpus. At the end of 2020, Semantic Scholar had indexed 190 million papers.
In 2020, users of Semantic Scholar reached seven million a month.
As of November 2021, the Semantic Scholar Advisory Board consisted of:
- Ilias Nikolakopoulos, MD
- Internal Medicine Resident, Yale School of Medicine
- David E. Cummings, MD
- Professor of Medicine, University of Washington
- Sravanthi Parasa
- Elena L. Glassman
- Bryan Pardo
- Citation analysis
- Citation index
- Knowledge extraction
- List of academic databases and search engines
- Eunjung Cha, Ariana (3 November 2015). "Paul Allen's AI research group unveils program that aims to shake up how we search scientific knowledge. Give it a try". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 6 November 2019. Retrieved November 3, 2015.
- Hao, Karen (November 18, 2020). "An AI helps you summarize the latest in AI". MIT Technology Review. Retrieved 2021-02-16.
- "Semantic Scholar Research". research.semanticscholar.org. Retrieved 2021-11-22.
- Fricke, Suzanne (2018-01-12). "Semantic Scholar". Journal of the Medical Library Association. 106 (1): 145–147. doi:10.5195/jmla.2018.280. ISSN 1558-9439. S2CID 45802944.
- Grad, Peter (November 24, 2020). "AI tool summarizes lengthy papers in a sentence". Tech Xplore. Retrieved 2021-02-16.
- "Allen Institute's Semantic Scholar now searches across 175 million academic papers". VentureBeat. 2019-10-23. Retrieved 2021-02-16.
- Bohannon, John (11 November 2016). "A computer program just ranked the most influential brain scientists of the modern era". Science. doi:10.1126/science.aal0371. Archived from the original on 29 April 2020. Retrieved 12 November 2016.
- Christopher Clark; Santosh Divvala (2016). PDFFigures 2.0: Mining figures from research papers. Proceedings of the 16th ACM/IEEE-CS Joint Conference on Digital Libraries. ISBN 978-1-4503-4229-2. Wikidata Q108172042.
- "Semantic Scholar". International Journal of Language and Literary Studies. Retrieved 2021-11-09.
- Baykoucheva, Svetla (2021). Driving Science Information Discovery in the Digital Age. Chandos Publishing. p. 91. ISBN 978-0-12-823724-3.
- Jose, Joemon M.; Yilmaz, Emine; Magalhães, João; Castells, Pablo; Ferro, Nicola; Silva, Mário J.; Martins, Flávio (2020). Advances in Information Retrieval: 42nd European Conference on IR Research, ECIR 2020, Lisbon, Portugal, April 14–17, 2020, Proceedings, Part I. Cham, Switzerland: Springer Nature. p. 254. ISBN 978-3-030-45438-8.
- Hannousse, Abdelhakim (2021). "Searching relevant papers for software engineering secondary studies: Semantic Scholar coverage and identification role". IET Software. 15 (1): 126–146. doi:10.1049/sfw2.12011. ISSN 1751-8814. S2CID 234053002.
- "AI2 scales up Semantic Scholar search engine to encompass biomedical research". GeekWire. 2017-10-17. Archived from the original on 2018-01-19. Retrieved 2018-01-18.
- "Tech Moves: Allen Instititue Hires Amazon Alexa Machine Learning Leader; Microsoft Chairman Takes on New Investor Role; and More". GeekWire. 2018-05-02. Archived from the original on 2018-05-10. Retrieved 2018-05-09.
- "Semantic Scholat". Semantic Scholar. Archived from the original on 11 August 2019. Retrieved 11 August 2019.
- "AI2 joins forces with Microsoft Research to upgrade search tools for scientific studies". GeekWire. 2018-12-05. Archived from the original on 2019-08-25. Retrieved 2019-08-25.
- "https://www.journals.uchicago.edu/journals/pr/201215". RCNi Company Limited. Retrieved 2021-11-22. External link in
- Dunn, Adriana (December 14, 2020). "Semantic Scholar Adds 25 Million Scientific Papers in 2020 Through New Publisher Partnerships" (PDF). Semantic Scholar. Retrieved November 22, 2021.
- "Semantic Scholar | About Us". www.semanticscholar.org. Retrieved 2021-11-22.
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