Open Archives Initiative

Logo used by the Open Archives Initiative.

The Open Archives Initiative (OAI) was an informal organization, in the circle around the colleagues Herbert Van de Sompel, Carl Lagoze, Michael L. Nelson and Simeon Warner,[1] to develop and apply technical interoperability standards for archives to share catalogue information (metadata).[2][3][4][5] The group got together in the late late 1990s[6] and was active for around twenty years. OAI coordinated in particular three specification activities: OAI-PMH,[7] OAI-ORE[8] and ResourceSync.[9][10][11] All along the group worked towards building a "low-barrier interoperability framework" for archives (institutional repositories) containing digital content (digital libraries) to allow people (service providers) harvest metadata (from data providers).[12][13] Such sets of metadata are since then harvested to provide "value-added services", often by combining different data sets.[14][15][16][17]

OAI has been involved in developing a technological framework and interoperability standards for enhancing access to eprint archives, which make scholarly communications like academic journals available, associated with the open access publishing movement. The relevant technology and standards are applicable beyond scholarly publishing.

The OAI technical infrastructure, specified in the Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH) version 2.0,[7] defines a mechanism for data providers to expose their metadata. This protocol mandates that individual archives map their metadata to the Dublin Core, a common metadata set for this purpose. OAI standards allow a common way to provide content, and part of those standards is that the content has metadata that describes the items in Dublin Core format. Object Reuse and Exchange (OAI-ORE)[8] defines standards for the description and exchange of aggregations of web resources.

Funding for the initiative came from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, Coalition for Networked Information (CNI), Digital Library Federation (DLF), National Science Foundation (NSF), the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, and other organizations.[5]

See also



  1. ^ Calhoun, Karen (2014). Exploring Digital Libraries: Foundations, Practice, Prospects. Facet Publishing. pp. 37–39. ISBN 978-1-85604-820-0.
  2. ^ Warner, Simeon (2001-06-28). "Exposing and harvesting metadata using the OAI metadata harvesting protocol: A tutorial". arXiv:cs/0106057.
  3. ^ Van de Sompel, Herbert; Nelson, Michael L.; Lagoze, Carl; Warner, Simeon (2004). "Resource Harvesting within the OAI-PMH Framework". D-Lib Magazine. 10 (12). doi:10.1045/december2004-vandesompel. ISSN 1082-9873.
  4. ^ Lagoze, Carl; Van de Sompel, Herbert (2003). "The making of the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting". Library Hi Tech. 21 (2): 118–128. doi:10.1108/07378830310479776. ISSN 0737-8831.
  5. ^ a b Open Archives Initiative -> About OAI
  6. ^ Van de Sompel, Herbert; Lagoze, Carl (2000). "The Santa Fe Convention of the Open Archives Initiative". D-Lib Magazine. 6 (2). doi:10.1045/february2000-vandesompel-oai. ISSN 1082-9873.
  7. ^ a b Lagoze, Carl; Van de Sompel, Herbert; Nelson, Michael; Warner, Simeon (2002-06-14). "Open Archives Initiative - Protocol for Metadata Harvesting - v.2.0". Retrieved 2021-02-26.
  8. ^ a b "ORE Specifications and User Guides - Table of Contents". 2014 [2008]. Retrieved 2021-02-26.
  9. ^ Van de Sompel, Herbert; Nelson, Michael L.; Klein, Martin; Sanderson, Robert (2013), Aalberg, Trond; Papatheodorou, Christos; Dobreva, Milena; Tsakonas, Giannis (eds.), "ResourceSync: The NISO/OAI Resource Synchronization Framework", Research and Advanced Technology for Digital Libraries, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 8092, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, pp. 488–489, doi:10.1007/978-3-642-40501-3_70, ISBN 978-3-642-40500-6, retrieved 2021-02-26
  10. ^ "ResourceSync Framework Specification - Table of Contents". 2017. Retrieved 2021-02-26.
  11. ^ "ANSI/NISO Z39.99-2017 ResourceSync Framework Specification | NISO website". 2017. Retrieved 2021-02-26.
  12. ^ Arms, William Y.; Dushay, Naomi; Fulker, Dave; Lagoze, Carl (2003). "A case study in metadata harvesting: the NSDL". Library Hi Tech. 21 (2): 228–237. doi:10.1108/07378830310479866. ISSN 0737-8831.
  13. ^ Horwood, Lynne; Sullivan, Shirley; Young, Eve; Garner, Jane (2004). "OAI compliant institutional repositories and the role of library staff". Library Management. 25 (4/5): 170–176. doi:10.1108/01435120410533756. hdl:11343/33742. ISSN 0143-5124. S2CID 60593691.
  14. ^ Suleman, Hussein; Fox, Edward A. (2003). "Leveraging OAI harvesting to disseminate theses". Library Hi Tech. 21 (2): 219–227. doi:10.1108/07378830310479857. ISSN 0737-8831.
  15. ^ Cole, Timothy W.; Foulonneau, Muriel (2007). Using the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting. Libraries Unlimited. ISBN 978-1-59158-280-9.
  16. ^ Shreeves, Sarah L.; Habing, Thomas G.; Hagedorn, Kat; Young, Jeffery (2005). "Current developments and future trends for the OAI Protocol for Metadata Harvesting". Library Trends. 53 (4): 576–589.
  17. ^ Reese, Terry (2009-04-01). "Automated Metadata Harvesting: Low-Barrier MARC Record Generation from OAI-PMH Repository Stores Using MarcEdit". Library Resources & Technical Services. 53 (2): 121–134. doi:10.5860/lrts.53n2.121. ISSN 0024-2527.