SpaceX Starship

Starship
SpaceX super heavy-lift reusable launch vehicle
Photograph of a steel rocket facing backward on a launch mount
Photograph of the top of a steel booster inside a construction bay
Left: Starship spacecraft SN16 on display
Right: Super Heavy booster BN4[a]
Has use
Manufacturer
Country of origin
  • United States Edit this on Wikidata
Size
Height
  • 120 metre
  • 400 foot Edit this on Wikidata
Diameter
  • 9 metre
  • 30 foot Edit this on Wikidata
Stages
  • Super Heavy (1)
  • Starship (1) Edit this on Wikidata
Launch history
Status
  • Under construction Edit this on Wikidata
Launch sites
Capacity
Payload to low Earth orbit
Altitude
  • 500 kilometre
  • 310 mile Edit this on Wikidata
Orbital inclination98.9 degree Edit this on Wikidata
Mass
  • 100 tonne
  • 220,000 pound Edit this on Wikidata
Volume
  • 1,000 cubic metre
  • 35,000 cubic foot Edit this on Wikidata
Payload to geostationary transfer orbit
Altitude
  • Unknown Edit this on Wikidata
Orbital inclinationUnknown Edit this on Wikidata
Mass
  • 100 tonne
  • 220,000 pound Edit this on Wikidata
Volume
  • 1,000 cubic metre
  • 35,000 cubic foot Edit this on Wikidata
Payload to Moon
Mass
  • 100 tonne
  • 220,000 pound Edit this on Wikidata
Volume
  • 1,000 cubic metre
  • 35,000 cubic foot Edit this on Wikidata
Payload to Mars
Mass
  • 100 tonne
  • 220,000 pound Edit this on Wikidata
Volume
  • 1,000 cubic metre
  • 35,000 cubic foot Edit this on Wikidata
Stages information
First stage – Super Heavy
Height
  • 70 metre
  • 230 foot Edit this on Wikidata
Diameter
  • 9 metre
  • 30 foot Edit this on Wikidata
Propellant mass
  • 3,400 tonne
  • 7,500,000 pound Edit this on Wikidata
Powered by
Propellant
Second stage – Starship
Height
  • 50 metre
  • 170 foot Edit this on Wikidata
Diameter
  • 9 metre
  • 30 foot Edit this on Wikidata
Propellant mass
  • 1,200 tonne
  • 2,650,000 pound Edit this on Wikidata
Powered by
Propellant

Starship is a reusable space rocket made by SpaceX, an American aerospace company. It is made from stainless steel, a material that is rarely used in rockets. It might become the tallest, heaviest, and most powerful rocket in the world.[1] The dearMoon project and Artemis program use Starship as their main rocket. SpaceX has repeatedly said that one day, the spacecraft might send humans to Mars.

The bottom of the Starship rocket is the Super Heavy booster, and the top is the Starship spacecraft. Both could launch and land many times at special pads and boats. This may make a Starship launch much cheaper. They also have many rocket engines at the bottom, called Raptor. These Raptor engines burn methane and oxygen to boost the Starship rocket into orbit.

Between 2005 and 2018, SpaceX imagined many rockets similar to Starship. Since then, the company has been building many Super Heavy and Starship at Starbase, Texas. On 25 July 2019, Starhopper hopped and tested the Raptor engine for the first time. On 9 December 2020, Starship SN8 for the first time launched up to 10 km (6.2 mi) high. However, one Raptor engine melted, crashing the spacecraft to the ground. On 5 May 2021, SN15 launched and landed successfully. There are plans for SN20 and Super Heavy BN4[a] to be launched into orbit.

Parts[change | change source]

Starship has two parts: the Super Heavy booster and the Starship spacecraft. Both Super Heavy and Starship should be able to land and launch many times quickly. That is the reason why the Starship rocket is often called a fully-reusable rocket. As of November 2021, no other rockets except Falcon 9 and Falcon Heavy's booster can do this.[3] Most of the rocket is made from SAE 304 stainless steel, the most common type of all.[4]

Starship may become the tallest, heaviest, and most powerful rocket in the world. It can carry 100 metric tons (220,000 lb) of cargo to low Earth orbit. For comparison, the Space Shuttle could only carry 27.5 metric tons (61,000 lb) to the International Space Station.[5] In this example, the International Space Station has an even lower orbit than Starship.[b] The Starship spacecraft can also carry cargo to higher Earth orbits, the Moon, and Mars.[7]

Super Heavy and Starship must pass many tests before launch. Firstly, they are filled with nitrogen gas to check for leaks. Then, cold liquid nitrogen fills and drains from Starship and Super Heavy to check the tanks' strength.[8] Finally, propellant fills their tanks, and the Raptor engines are fired.[9]

Super Heavy booster[change | change source]

Below the rocket is a 70 m (230 ft) tall Super Heavy booster. This booster can hold about 3,600 metric tons (7,900,000 lb) of propellant. Super Heavy and Starship's propellants are liquid methane and liquid oxygen.[10] The booster is made from stainless steel rings. These rings are 3.97 mm (0.156 in) thick, 1.8 m (5 ft 11 in) tall, and 9 m (30 ft) diameter.[11]

At the bottom of the booster are 33[c] Raptor rocket engines. They can make 72,000,000 N (16,000,000 lbf) of thrust,[13][12] twice more than the Saturn V.[14] The thrust speeds up the rocket to Mach 8–Mach 9 (9,800–11,000 km/h; 6,100–6,900 mph).[15]

On top of Super Heavy are four boxes containing fins in a grid pattern. These boxes are usually called grid fins, like those of the Falcon 9. Grid fins rotate to control and guide the booster while falling from the sky.[16][17] When it is just a few kilometers or miles above ground, Super Heavy fires its engines and lands on the tower arms, which will 'catch' it.[10][16]

Starship spacecraft[change | change source]

Starship SN20 at the back
Starship SN20 at the back

On top of the booster sits a 50 m (160 ft) tall Starship spacecraft.[17][18] The spacecraft can hold about 1,200 metric tons (2,600,000 lb) of propellant.[13] Its propellant is the same as Super Heavy's, which are liquid methane and liquid oxygen.[10] The Starship spacecraft is made from stainless steel rings, similar to Super Heavy.[4]

At the bottom of the spacecraft are six rocket engines. Three of them are regular Raptor engines; three others are Raptor Vacuum engines. These regular Raptor engines work inside the air, while Raptor Vacuum engines work inside the vacuum.[19][20]

There are two kinds of propellant tanks inside Starship: these are main tanks and header tanks. The main tanks store propellant for almost all functions of the spacecraft. The only exception here is when Starship lands when it uses its header tanks instead.[21][22]

There are four flaps that connect to Starship's body. Two large flaps are at the bottom of the spacecraft, and two small flaps are at the top of the spacecraft. They are made from stainless steel sheets and bend to a trapezoid shape. The flaps can control Starship's falling speed and direction.[23]

A black heat shield covers one side of the spacecraft. The heat shield is made from ceramic hexagon tiles and sheets of ceramic wool.[3][24] They help to protect Starship from hot plasma, made when the spacecraft enters Earth's atmosphere. Starship's heat shield could be durable and used many times.[3]

Types of Starship[change | change source]

In the past, the Starship spacecraft was planned to only bring cargo and astronauts to Mars.[25] However, as of 2021, SpaceX is planning many kinds of Starships that do different tasks. They are different from each other by having parts added, removed, or changed.[26]

Some Starships might transport people between different cities without leaving Earth's orbit. It could go from New York City to Shanghai in 39 minutes, much faster than an airplane's 15 hours. SpaceX thinks that Starship flights might be as cheap as a business class ticket in the far future.[27] As of January 2021, the United States Air Force is interested in this idea.[28]

However, most Starships would carry satellites, cargo, and humans to Earth orbit. They would have a large door that rotates along a hinge. These Starships could catch space debris as well.[23]

Some Starships would carry propellant instead of cargo. These spacecraft can fuel another spacecraft in orbit. Via fueling, these spacecraft would have more range and can go further.[29][30]

Starship HLS (Starship Human Landing System) will land astronauts on the Moon during the Artemis program. It can take propellant from other Starships to have more range. The spacecraft would not have a heat shield or body flaps.[26] However, it will have solar panels and landing engines. Starship HLS can be fueled and connected to the Orion spacecraft.[10][31]

Starships going to Mars also need fueling as well.[32] That spacecraft might have forty rooms, a storage room, and a shelter. The shelter protects astronauts from the Sun's ionizing radiation.[33]

Launch and landing places[change | change source]

Photograph of many steel spacecraft inside and outside the building
Starships at Starbase
Photograph of a tall steel tower
Tower at Starbase

The rocket might launch from Starbase, boats, or LC-39A.[34][35] Starbase at Texas is where SpaceX makes and tests most Super Heavy and Starship.[36] The launch boats are named Phobos and Deimos after the moons of Mars. They were oil platforms owned by Valaris.[10][35]

All Starship launch and landing places will have a tower. It has a large crane placed on top that can lift Super Heavy and Starship.[37] That tower also has a pair of steel arms that rotate at a hinge similar to claws.[18] The claws can catch Super Heavy as well.[38][39]

Some people living near Starbase blamed SpaceX for harming wildlife, building and testing things without permission, and making too much noise.[45] However, many people come to visit and stay there.[46] When asked, they said that watching and imagining Starships sending humans to Mars made them love the place.[46][47]

Raptor rocket engine[change | change source]

Photograph of a rocket engine firing with blue-purple exhaust
Raptor firing in McGregor, Texas on 25 September 2016

Both Super Heavy and Starship have SpaceX's Raptor rocket engines at the bottom. Each engine can make about 2,300,000 N (520,000 lbf) of thrust.[10] It has a full-flow staged combustion cycle design and burns liquid methane with liquid oxygen.[48] These Raptor engines will be made in a new factory at McGregor.[10]

Also at the bottom of the Starship spacecraft are the Raptor Vacuum engines. They are Raptor engines with larger nozzles. The Raptor Vacuum only works in space and is more efficient than the normal Raptor engine.[10][49] The Raptor 2 engine is the next generation of the Raptor and Raptor Vacuum engines. They will be used in Super Heavy and Starship sometimes in the future.[50] Both the Raptor Vacuum and Raptor 2 are going to be made in another factory at Hawthorne.[10]

This is how a full-flow staged combustion cycle engine works. First, liquid methane and oxygen flow into the engine's turbopumps. The turbopumps increase the liquids' pressure. Then, the methane and oxygen evaporate into hot gases in two preburners. One preburner gets more methane, and another gets more oxygen.[48] The gas then turns the turbines and turbopumps by a shaft. These spinning turbines and turbopumps pump more propellant to the engine. This hot and mixed gas is then burned in a combustion chamber.[51] Finally, the engine nozzle directs the ignited gas to make thrust.[52]

Missions[change | change source]

Planned[change | change source]

Photograph of a white nose cone with NASA worm logo and US flag
Starship HLS model nose cone

SpaceX wants Starship to replace the Falcon 9, Falcon Heavy, and Dragon 2.[53] Musk guessed a Starship launch should cost $2 million (United States dollars) and the mission's propellant cost should be about $900,000.[54] Starship could carry 400 Starlink satellites into orbit. A Falcon 9 can carry only 60 Starlink satellites.[34][55]

The dearMoon project is planned for no earlier than 2023. Previously, in 2018, Japanese entrepreneur Yusaku Maezawa announced that private space mission.[56] Its crew are Maezawa himself and eight other people. The plan is to use Starship as the main spacecraft. The spacecraft launch them toward the Moon, circle around it, and then return back to Earth.[56]

On 16 April 2021, NASA selected Starship HLS as the Moon lander for the Artemis program. The other options were the Integrated Lander Vehicle by the National Team and Dynetics HLS by the Dynetics company. NASA then awarded SpaceX $2.89 billion to make Starship HLS.[36][57][58] NASA wants Starship HLS to do a landing on the Moon without humans first. Then, Starship will send astronauts for the Artemis 3 mission.[36]

Failed protest about not getting a contract[change | change source]

Ten days later, Blue Origin sent a protest to an United States government agency. Blue Origin blamed NASA for not allowing Blue Origin to compete. Blue Origin said NASA did not keep its promise. The original plan was that NASA would choose two Moon landers.[59] On 30 July 2021, NASA denied Blue Origin's protest. NASA said they could only choose one lander because they did not have enough money. The government said NASA did not break the competition's rules.[60][61]

Colonizing other planets[change | change source]

SpaceX wants to start Mars colonization and terraforming. It would do so by sending humans to Mars.[62][7] Musk's life goal is to ensure that humans are still around after a mass extinction on Earth.[63] He also talked about Starships going to Enceladus, Europa, Pluto, and the Oort cloud. The Starship rocket on those missions could launch from Mars.[64][65]

SpaceX thinks sending humans to Mars needs many steps. First, some Starships might carry many important things to Mars' surface. Inside them are fertilizer factories, propellant factories, and building materials. The propellant factory takes in carbon dioxide from Mars's air and hydrogen from the ice below. Then, the factory uses the Sabatier reaction. Hydrogen reacts with carbon dioxide with hydrogen to create methane and oxygen. Methane and oxygen are Starship's propellants.[62][66] Filled up with the factory's methane and oxygen, Starship can return from Mars back to Earth.[66] Building materials are used to make domes. They protect farmland from Mars's weather and atmosphere.[67][68]

Musk has guessed that a city with a million people on Mars is enough to keep itself running. It should be able to create everything that the people need. The city does not need shipments from Earth by then. He guessed that the city needs at least ten thousand Starships full of humans. Each Starship can carry 100 passengers on board.[34] To give the colony enough equipment and food, a hundred thousand Starships carrying cargo might launch to Mars. This guess does not have population growth.[69]

History[change | change source]

Early ideas[change | change source]

Computer generated image of a white rocket with fins at the middle
Computer generated image by SpaceX of Big Falcon Rocket in flight

In 2005, Elon Musk talked about a launch vehicle named BFR, later known as the Falcon XX.[70] The Falcon XX was never built. Unlike Starship, it could only fly up once.[71] Falcon XX was going to use Merlin 2 engine, a larger version of the Merlin engine. The engines burns kerosene and liquid oxygen.

In September 2016, at the 67th IAC (International Astronautical Congress), Elon Musk talked about the ITS (Interplanetary Transport System). It was going to be 122 m (400 ft) tall and 12 m (39 ft) wide.[64] The booster was going to have 42 Raptors, and the spacecraft was going to have 9 Raptors.[72][73][74] Both the booster and spacecraft are made from carbon composites, and could launch many times. The ITS can carry humans to Mars and other places inside the Solar System. When the spacecraft enters Mars's atmosphere, it cools by transpiration. Transpiration here means the spacecraft flows propellant to the front side and evaporates the heat.[75]

At the next IAC in September 2017, Musk announced the Big Falcon Rocket. It is sometimes called Big Fucking Rocket.[76] In that IAC, he talked about moving people around Earth quickly with a Big Falcon Rocket. He called it Earth to Earth.[77][35]

In November 2018, Musk tweeted about a new spacecraft design. It had three bottom flaps and two top flaps.[78] Around that time, the present names of Starship parts were first used:

  • the booster stage was named Super Heavy;
  • the spacecraft stage was named Starship; and
  • the whole rocket was named Starship system or Starship.[79]

In January 2019, Musk tweeted that Starship will be made from stainless steel instead of carbon composite. He explained that a stainless steel Starship is stronger than a carbon composite Starship.[80][81][82][83] In March 2019, Musk tweeted again that Starships will have a heat shield made of tiles. The heat shield replaces transpiration cooling.[15]

A picture of flying steel rocket with a large dust cloud below
SN8 launch at Starbase, firing three Raptors

Hops[change | change source]

Videos of Starship flights and failed tests
From NASASpaceFlight.com and SpaceX
Starhopper 150m hop
Starship Mk1 failed cryogenic proof test
Starship SN1 failed cryogenic proof test
Starship SN3 failed cryogenic proof test
Starship SN4 failed static fire test
Starship SN5 150m hop
Starship SN6 150m hop
Starship SN8 failed third static fire test
Starship SN8 failed 12.5km test flight
Starship SN9 failed 10km test flight
Starship SN10 failed 10km test flight
Starship SN11 failed 10km test flight
Starship SN15 10km test flight

On 27 August 2019, Starhopper, the first vehicle to use the Raptor, flew 150 m (490 ft) high.[84] In October 2019, Starship's design had three Raptors and three Raptor Vacuum engines.[49] There are only two bottom flaps in the new design. They are close to the heat shield’s edges.[85] In September 2019, Starship Mk1 (Mark 1) was the first built Starship. The next vehicle, named Mk2, was built in Florida five months later.[86] Mk1 failed [testing at cold temperature, or] the cryogenic proof test, while SpaceX recycled Mk2. Both of them did not fly.[87][88]

In early 2020, SpaceX changed Mk3's name to SN1 (serial number 1).[89] On 28 February 2020, SN1 crushed itself during a cryogenic proof test. It is because of a leak in the bottom tank.[90] On 8 March 2020, SN2's tank completed its only cryogenic proof test.[90] On 3 April 2020, during the SN3 cryogenic proof test, a valve leaked liquid nitrogen inside its bottom tank. This causes the vehicle to lose pressure and crush itself.[91] On 29 May 2020, SN4 had its fifth successful static fire test. But, after the test, the connected propellant pipe made SN4 explode.[92]

On 4 August 2020, SN5 completed a flight with one Raptor. The rocket went to 150 m (490 ft) before coming down. It is the first Starship to complete a flight intact.[93] On 24 August 2020, SN6 repeated SN5's flight and did not explode.[94] As of October 2021, the company is testing and experimenting with SN7’s tanks.[95]

Test flights and other testing[change | change source]

SN8 was the first complete Starship.[96] In October and November 2020, SN8 survived four static fire tests. The first, second, and fourth tests were successful, but the third test failed. In the third test, SN8's Raptors destroyed the mount. The concrete layer melted, splashed, and hit a Raptor.[97]

On 9 December 2020, the FAA (Federal Aviation Administration) warned SN8 could explode if it was flown as planned. SpaceX ignored its warnings.[98][99][100] SN8 then flew up, making it the first Starship to fly. It goes as high as 12.5 km (7.8 mi), then comes back down. While landing, SN8's methane header tank did not pump enough methane to the Raptors. This causes one engine to burn itself. So, SN8 hit the ground fast and exploded.[101]

On 2 February 2021, SN9 flew 10 km (6.2 mi) high.[102] During the landing, a Raptor does not work. So, SN9 lands at an angle and exploded as well.[103] On 3 March 2021, SN10 repeated SN9's flight. It then landed with all Raptors working. But, because SN10 was damaged, it blew up eight minutes later.[104][105] On 8 March 2021, the first Super Heavy booster named BN1 (booster number 1) was finished.[106]

On 30 March 2021, SN11 exploded in dense fog. No one knows why it exploded.[107][108] A possible explanation is that a Raptor burned SN11's computer. This could let too much propellant flow into the engine's turbopump. When the engine is lit, the pressure inside the chamber is too much, making SN11 explode.[109]

SpaceX then skipped SN12, SN13, SN14, and BN2. Their improvements were added to SN15 instead.[110] On 5 May 2021, SN15 flew the same flight and landed. It did not explode after launch.[111][112] On 20 July 2021, BN3 static fired for the only time.[9] As of October 2021, SN15, SN16, and BN3 have not been used since.[111][113]

Launches into space[change | change source]

As of October 2021, SpaceX again skipped some Starship and Super Heavy. They are SN16, SN17, SN18, and SN19. Now, there are plans to launch SN20 and BN4[a] into space. On 22 October 2021, SN20 static fired one Raptor Vacuum.[114]

A plan by NASA to see Starship entering the atmosphere showed the launch could happen near March 2022.[3] In SpaceX's plan, SN20 and BN4 will go above the Straits of Florida. BN4 is then going to separate about three minutes after. The booster then goes back into the Gulf of Mexico, about 30 km (19 mi) from the shore. SN20 then speeds up close to the orbital speed. It then splashes down ninety minutes later. It will be at about 100 km (60 mi) northwest of Kauai.[115][116]

The FAA has not allowed SpaceX to launch SN20 and BN4 however. The company must finish a proposal about how Starship launches affect the area around it.[1][117][118][119] Some experts said the proposal missed an important detail. It is how SpaceX gets a large volume of methane for Starship's propellant. A professor writes this might be illegal under United States' environmental acts from Congress.[120]

Timeline[change | change source]

Note: The start dates are when rocket stages were first seen, and the end dates are when they are destroyed or not used anymore.

Notes and references[change | change source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Around August 2021, SpaceX and Elon Musk named the rocket stages "Starship X" and "Booster X". X here means the serial number. Quite often, the names are shortened to "S" and "B". Sometimes, "Starship X" is also shortened to "Ship X".[2]
  2. The International Space Station orbits 407 km (253 mi) high at 51.64° inclination. Starship in this case orbits 500 km (310 mi) high at 98.9° inclination.[6]
  3. The first few Super Heavy have less than thirty-three engines.[12]
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  2. Sheetz, Michael (6 August 2021). "Musk: 'Dream come true' to see fully stacked SpaceX Starship rocket during prep for orbital launch". CNBC. Archived from the original on 19 August 2021. Retrieved 24 September 2021.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 Inman, Jennifer Ann; Horvath, Thomas J.; Scott, Carey Fulton (24 August 2021). "SCIFLI Starship Reentry Observation (SSRO) ACO (SpaceX Starship)". NASA. Archived from the original on 11 October 2021. Retrieved 12 October 2021.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Etherington, Darrell (29 September 2019). "Elon Musk says Starship should reach orbit within six months – and could even fly with a crew next year". TechCrunch. Archived from the original on 24 September 2021. Retrieved 24 September 2021.
  5. "Inertial Upper Stage". Rocket and Space Technology. November 2017. Archived from the original on August 7, 2020. Retrieved June 21, 2020.
  6. Cite error: The named reference Guide was used but no text was provided for refs named (see the help page).
  7. 7.0 7.1 Wroth, Carmel (29 September 2019). "Elon Musk Unveils SpaceX's New Starship, Designed To Fly To The Moon, Mars And Beyond". NPR. Archived from the original on 9 August 2021. Retrieved 27 September 2021.
  8. Foust, Jeff (27 April 2020). "Starship passes key pressurization test". SpaceNews. Retrieved 28 September 2021.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  9. 9.0 9.1 Tariq, Malik (20 July 2021). "SpaceX test fires massive Super Heavy booster for Starship for 1st time (video)". Space.com. Archived from the original on 3 August 2021. Retrieved 11 September 2021.
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 10.7 10.8 Sesnic, Trevor (11 August 2021). "Starbase Tour and Interview with Elon Musk". Everyday Astronaut. Archived from the original on 12 August 2021. Retrieved 12 October 2021.
  11. Howell, Elizabeth (21 August 2021). "Every SpaceX Starship explosion and what Elon Musk and team learned from them (video)". Space.com. Archived from the original on 3 September 2021. Retrieved 11 October 2021.
  12. 12.0 12.1 Bergin, Chris (30 May 2021). "Laying the groundwork for Super Heavy amid Raptor Ramp Up". NASASpaceFlight.com. Archived from the original on 30 May 2021. Retrieved 30 May 2021.
  13. 13.0 13.1 "Starship page". SpaceX. Archived from the original on 22 May 2020. Retrieved 24 September 2021.
  14. Amos, Jonathan (6 August 2021). "Biggest ever rocket is assembled briefly in Texas". BBC News. Archived from the original on 11 August 2021. Retrieved 18 September 2021.
  15. 15.0 15.1 Malik, Tariq (22 March 2019). "SpaceX's Hexagon Tiles for Starship Heat Shield Pass Fiery Test". Space.com. Archived from the original on 6 March 2021. Retrieved 24 September 2021.
  16. 16.0 16.1 Berger, Eric (4 January 2021). "SpaceX may try to catch a falling rocket with a launch tower". Ars Technica. Archived from the original on 5 July 2021. Retrieved 24 September 2021.
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  18. 18.0 18.1 Cuthbertson, Anthony (30 August 2021). "SpaceX will use 'robot chopsticks' to catch massive rocket, Elon Musk says". The Independent. Archived from the original on 2 September 2021. Retrieved 23 September 2021.
  19. Bergin, Chris (31 August 2021). "Starbase Launch Tower enters Mechazilla installation phase". NASASpaceFlight.com. Archived from the original on 8 September 2021. Retrieved 9 September 2021.
  20. Grush, Loren (9 December 2020). "SpaceX flies Starship prototype rocket to highest altitude yet — but doesn't stick the landing". The Verge. Archived from the original on 2 July 2021. Retrieved 24 September 2021.
  21. Bergin, Chris (7 February 2021). "Starship SN10's Raptors installed as testing begins". NASASpaceFlight.com. Archived from the original on 8 October 2021. Retrieved 11 October 2021.
  22. Berger, Eric (13 November 2020). "Rocket Report: SpaceX set for second crew launch, Chinese firm reaches orbit". Ars Technica. Archived from the original on 18 November 2020. Retrieved 24 September 2021.
  23. 23.0 23.1 Kanayama, Lee; Beil, Adrian (28 August 2021). "SpaceX continues forward progress with Starship on Starhopper anniversary". NASASpaceFlight.com. Archived from the original on 31 August 2021. Retrieved 24 September 2021.
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  28. Berger, Eric (2021-06-01). "The US military is starting to get really interested in Starship". Ars Technica. Archived from the original on 2021-10-24. Retrieved 2021-11-08.
  29. Chaben, Jack B. (2020). "Extending Humanity's Reach: A Public-Private Framework for Space Exploration". Journal of Strategic Security. University of South Florida Board of Trustees. 13 (3): 90. doi:10.5038/1944-0472.13.3.1811. Archived from the original on 2021-10-26. Retrieved 2021-10-25 – via JSTOR.
  30. Clark, Stephen (1 May 2020). "NASA identifies risks in SpaceX's Starship lunar lander proposal". Spaceflight Now. Archived from the original on 3 February 2021. Retrieved 29 September 2021.
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  32. Sheetz, Michael (1 September 2020). "Elon Musk says SpaceX's Starship rocket will launch "hundreds of missions" before flying people". CNBC. Archived from the original on 2 September 2020. Retrieved 2 September 2020.
  33. Sheetz, Michael (1 September 2020). "Elon Musk says SpaceX's Starship rocket will launch "hundreds of missions" before flying people". CNBC. Archived from the original on 2 September 2020. Retrieved 2 September 2020.
  34. 34.0 34.1 34.2 Sheetz, Michael (1 September 2020). "Elon Musk says SpaceX's Starship rocket will launch "hundreds of missions" before flying people". CNBC. Archived from the original on 2 September 2020. Retrieved 2 September 2020.
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